NIOSH resources for conducting workplace safety and health surveillance, the Occupational Sentinel Health Events (SHEOs) list and a table of currently available medical screening and biological monitoring tests, were reviewed. SHEOs were defined as work related diseases, disabilities, or deaths preventable by medical means. SHEOs included those diseases which were inherently work related, such as pneumoconiosis, and those diseases which were not necessarily work related, such as lung cancer. The first SHEO list was published in 1983 and contained 50 work related diseases. An updated SHEO list, based on more stringent criteria, was published in 1991 and contained 64 diseases and over 140 agents. Medical screening and biological monitoring were considered useful approaches to occupational disease surveillance. A table of the available medical screening and biological monitoring tests for workers exposed to OSHA regulated substances was provided to assist physicians in determining which tests were appropriate for which exposure conditions and agents. The author concludes that workplace safety and health surveillance, based on the cooperation of all occupational health professionals, is essential for the prevention of occupational disease. The SHEO listing, and medical screening and biological monitoring table can help the occupational physician to achieve this goal.