Characterization of blood-containing aerosol generated during canine total hip replacement surgery.
Johnson-MC; Schwarz-PD; Sandfort-DR; Buchan-RM
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1997 Nov; 12(11):739-743
Blood contaminated aerosols produced during canine hip replacement surgery were characterized. Area samples were obtained during eight hip replacement procedures conducted at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Power tools were used during these procedures. Aerosol probes were positioned about 1 foot from the surgical site. Samples collected onto mixed cellulose-ester or polyvinylchloride membrane filters were analyzed for hemoglobin mass concentration using Hemastix strips. Laser aerosol spectrometry was used to determine particle size and concentration. During the surgeries, total airborne hemoglobin averaged 139+/-110 nanograms (ng), with a range of 65 to 372ng. Based on these values, a mean aerosol hemoglobin mass concentration of 102+/-75 nanograms per cubic meter was calculated. The mean count median diameter (CMD) of the particles generated during the eight surgeries was 0.18 micrometer (microm). Considering that the geometric standard deviations of each CMD ranged from 1.03 to 1.56, a monodisperse aerosol was most likely generated. The mean mass median diameter of the particles equaled 0.89microm. A mean aerosol mass concentration of 0.009+/-0.005mg/m3 was determined. The mean total particle count was 5.45x10(8)+/-3.54x10(8) particles per cubic meter. The particle number increased with power tool usage about 77% of the time. The authors conclude that blood contaminated aerosols are generated during canine orthopedic surgeries. Thus, the potential exists for occupational exposure of surgeons to airborne infectious agents.
Aerosol-sampling; Aerosol-particles; Sampling-methods; Occupational-exposure; Biological-material; Air-filters; Air-sampling-equipment; Particle-counters; Power-tools; Exposure-levels; Veterinary-medicine
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Industrial Hygiene Training Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523