Occupational ergonomics: theory and applications. Bhattacharya A, McGlothlin JD, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996 Apr; :581-603
The concept of work related cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) was considered, and some of the trends in analysis and control of these disorders were discussed. Upper extremity CTDs were defined as regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and joints that are associated with work related mechanical trauma. CTDs included tendinitis, tenosynovitis, synovitis, myalgia, bursitis, peritendinitis, epicondylitis, thoracic outlet syndrome, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The chapter detailed common CTDs and their symptoms, the development of CTDs including work related factors and nonoccupational factors, and industries and job tasks commonly reported causing CTDs; the incidence rate and costs associated with CTDs; and controlling CTDs through worksite analysis, hazard prevention and control medical management, and training and education. The application of ergonomic principles was considered, including the work done by NIOSH through the Health Evaluation and Technical Assistance (HETA) program. The role of OSHA and other legislation and guidelines in the future of CTDs was considered.