Factors influencing bone lead concentration in a suburban community assessed by noninvasive k x-ray fluorescence.
Kosnett-MJ; Becker-CE; Osterloh-JD; Kelly-TJ; Pasta-DJ
JAMA J Am Med Assoc 1994 Jan; 271(3):197-203
The demographic, occupational, and medical risk factors correlated with bone lead (7439921) levels were examined in individuals with nonindustrial lead exposures. The 101 residents of 49 households in a suburban community were interviewed and examined. In-vivo K-X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) was applied to the noninvasive measurement of the lead levels in the midtibial diaphysis. Blood and soil lead concentrations were also determined. The mean bone and blood lead levels were 12.7+/-14.6 parts per million and 0.28+/-0.19 micromoles per liter, respectively. Age was highly correlated with bone lead concentration, with a coefficient of 0.71 following logarithmic transformation. Bone and blood lead concentrations were mildly correlated, with a coefficient of 0.23 following logarithmic transformation. For subjects over the age of 55, men exhibited significantly higher bone lead concentrations than women. Among women, the number of pregnancies and births was not significantly associated with the age and sex adjusted bone lead content. However, bone lead concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with ever having breast fed, with a coefficient of -0.31. Cigarette smoking was significantly correlated with bone lead levels, with a coefficient of 0.20. Elevated blood lead levels were observed among the 11 individuals occupationally exposed to lead within the previous year. However, neither occupational nor avocational lead exposures were significantly correlated with bone lead concentrations. Log transformed blood lead levels were significantly correlated with the construction year of the current house. Soil lead concentrations were not related to adjusted bone lead levels. A multiple regression model incorporating the significant risk factors, such as age, sex, and cigarette smoking, accounted for two thirds of the variability in bone lead content. The authors conclude that the above findings facilitate the creation of a reference range for evaluating the lead burden of populations environmentally or occupationally exposed to lead.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Cardiovascular-system-disorders; Lactation; Demographic-characteristics; Occupational-exposure; Risk-factors; Heavy-metals; Lead-compounds; Blood-analysis; X-ray-fluorescence-analysis; Skeletal-system; Soil-analysis; Age-factors; Sex-factors; Cigarette-smoking
Medicine University of California, SF Sfgh Bldg 30 5Th Floor San Francisco, CA 94110
Journal of the American Medical Association
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California