The Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing (ELPAT) Program and its current status were discussed. For Round 16 of the ELPAT Program, paint chip, dust, and soil samples containing lead (7439921) were sent to 384 interested laboratories for analysis. The results of 365 laboratories were submitted and compared to those of the reference laboratories. The relative standard deviations among reference laboratories ranged from 6.3% to 11.8% for paint chips, 4.2% to 16.2% for soil, and 6.0 to 12.8% for dust. The numbers of outliers among the participating laboratories ranged from 2.5% to 10.9% for paint chips, 4.3% to 8.9% for soil, and 4.2% to 8.2% for dust. Sample digestion techniques included hotplate, microwave, ultrasonic, X-ray fluorescence sample preparation, and leaching. The instrument techniques included flame atomic absorption (FAA), graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES), anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), laboratory X-ray fluorescence, and ICP mass spectrometry. No statistically significant differences in the laboratory performances were related to the different methodologies employed. However, significantly higher mean lead concentrations in paint chips were reported with FAA than with ICP/AES. For another paint sample, both ASV and FAA produced higher mean lead concentrations than either GFAA or ICP/AES. In addition, higher mean lead concentrations in dust resulted from FAA than from ICP/AES. The lead contaminated samples of Round 17 were sent in November of 1996. This round incorporated the use of a new and improved dust wipe.