Ergonomics and Engineering Controls Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 1996 Mar; :1-57
Techniques for recognizing upper extremity and lower back musculoskeletal injury hazards in the workplace are summarized. The author emphasizes techniques that identify and quantify either subjectively or objectively both job and/or work place risk factors. A brief discussion is provided which considers the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the work place and economic burdens associated with them. A listing of widely recognized risk factors is presented, followed by a brief discussion of the actions taken to control these risk factors. The hazard recognition techniques are also described, grouped under biomechanical techniques, physiological techniques, and psychophysical techniques. This monograph is designed for use by small businesses which have minimal internal resources dedicated to ergonomics. The techniques presented are simple and do not require extensive data collection or lengthy analyses or experts for interpretation. Some knowledge of the field of occupational safety and health may be helpful or at least provide access to persons who possess such knowledge. Specific topics include occupational risk factors associated with the lower back (static work, posture, load characteristics, handles, couplings, frequency and repetitive handling, asymmetrical handling, nonuniform loads, space confinement, working duration and organization), occupational risk factors associated with upper extremities (fit, reach, vision, cold, vibration, local mechanical stress, awkward postures, load, cognitive demands), analyzing jobs, and techniques to assess risk factors (spinal stresses, body strengths, videotaping, posture, body size, force, vibration, oxygen consumption, heart rate, posture discomfort, rating of perceived exertion, and other rating scales).
Ergonomics and Engineering Controls Research Laboratory, College of Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, 57 pages, 56 references