Occupational ergonomics: theory and applications. Bhattacharya A, McGlothlin JD, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996 Apr; :545-568
This chapter focused on construction work related nonfatal injuries. Analysis of various accident records indicate 30 occupations were involved in more than 0.3% of the total number of compensation claims filed for the industry in 1987. Occupations with the highest frequency of injuries included construction laborer (25.8%), carpenter (14.8%), electrician (5.9%), and plumber (5.6%). Occupations with the highest injury rate included miscellaneous materials moving equipment operators (47.6%), construction laborer (43.3%), miscellaneous construction trades workers (32.2%), and carpet installer (32.0%). Seven occupations identified as priority research targets on the basis of the frequency weighted occupation specific rating technique included construction laborer, carpenter, roofer, drywall installer, plumber, electrician, and structural metal worker. A three tiered injury control program was suggested, using engineering controls, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. Engineering controls included using mechanical aids, torque control devices, or lifting aids; automating certain construction tasks; optimizing the weight of construction tools and containers; improving mechanical advantages of tool designs; improving visibility; improving heavy construction vehicle access systems; designing hand held tools and containers for balanced movement on the spine during lifting and carrying operations; selecting construction tools and equipment with minimum vibration; selecting methods to minimize surface and edge finishing; using full hand grip; altering position of tools or working postures; and providing good couplings between workers and tools. Specific administrative controls are also listed.