Occupational exposure of nonsmoking nightclub musicians to environmental tobacco smoke.
Bergman-TA; Johnson-DL; Boatright-DT; Smallwood-KG; Rando-RJ
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1996 Aug; 57(8):746-752
Nonsmoking nightclub musicians were studied to determine their degrees of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Nine musicians who played at three different nightclubs were selected as subjects. Levels of exposure to total suspended particulates (TSP), the ultraviolet absorbing fraction of TSP (UVPM), gaseous nicotine, salivary nicotine and cotinine levels, and perceived smokiness by the subjects were assessed in the subjects. TSP levels ranged from 110 to 1,714 micrograms/cubic meter (microg/m3), with a mean of 502microg/m3. A high degree of variability was observed between paired TSP samples, with an overall mean of 221microg/m3 for UVPM concentrations. UVPM and TSP results were not well correlated in this study. Gaseous nicotine levels ranged from 28.0 to 50.0microg/m3 at the three clubs, with a mean of 37.1microg/m3. These levels suggested a high degree of environmental tobacco smoke exposure potential. Gaseous nicotine measurements were consistent with UVPM, but not with TSP values, suggesting that UVPM analysis is a better indicator of ETS than TSP analysis. Salivary nicotine levels varied considerably between the workers at the three clubs, ranging from 50 nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml) to 115ng/ml. The mean salivary cotinine level for 15 study nights was 3.4ng/ml; this level was low compared to those reported for other occupational groups. Salivary cotinine levels increased with the number of performances per week. Perceived smokiness assessment by the subjects did not correlate with measured salivary nicotine, TSP, or UVPM. The authors conclude that the type of ventilation system used, the amount of fresh air provided, and the presence and operation mode of treatment devices, such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), by the nightclubs appear to influence exposures to environmental tobacco smoke related particulate matter.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Cigarette-smoking; Tobacco-smoke; Environmental-exposure; Exposure-levels; Occupational-exposure; Entertainers; Exhaust-ventilation
Family Medicine University of Oklahoma P O Box 26901 Oklahoma City, Okla 73190
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
University of Oklahoma Hlth Sciences Ctr, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma