Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-101, 1993 Oct; :1-2
From 1980 to 1989, NIOSH documented 7,603 homicides in US workplaces or 0.7 per 100,000 workers. Homicide was the leading cause of occupational death for women, and the third leading cause of death for all workers. Taxicab establishments had the highest rate of occupational homicide, nearly 40 times the national average and more than three times the rate of liquor stores, which had the next highest rate. Robbery was a primary motive, whereas other homicides were caused by disgruntled workers and clients or domestic violence that spilled into the workplace. Guns were the most frequent weapon used, accounting for 75% of workplace homicide deaths. The highest rates of homicide per 100,000 workers occurred at taxicab businesses (27), liquor stores (8), gas stations (5.6), detective/protection services (5), grocery stores (3.2), jewelry stores (3.2), hotels/motels (1.5), and eating/drinking businesses (1.5). The homicide rate for males was three times that for females, and higher for blacks than whites. Risk factors for homicide involved exchanging money with the public, working alone, working late, working in high crime areas, and guarding valuable property. Homicide can be prevented by making high risk areas visible, installing lighting, using drop safes to minimize cash, installing silent alarms, increasing number of workers, providing bulletproof vests, and having regular police checks.