An overview of preventable industrial causes of occupational cancer was presented. Sources of data on occupational carcinogens, single agents as preventable causes of occupational cancer, complex mixtures as preventable causes of cancer, and occupational groups at high risk for cancer were discussed. Animal studies and risk assessments have been used by NIOSH and OSHA to develop regulatory actions concerning occupational carcinogens. To bridge the gap between experimental models and identification of risks in humans, molecular cancer epidemiology is being developed. Traditional epidemiologic studies have been useful for investigating single agents. Epidemiologic and industrial hygiene techniques have been utilized for dealing with complex mixtures. Hormonally related cancer could be examined by studies of cancer risks among females. Likewise, studies of minority and nonminority persons could yield differences in mortality patterns due to job patterns. The author indicates that the identification of potential interventions earlier in the cancer causal pathway is the challenge of the future.