This report on NIOSH sponsored research efforts toward understanding the effects of acute exposure to solvents for humans focuses on neurobehavioral effects in workers in response to workplace exposures. NIOSH established a laboratory in 1972 for conducting human neurotoxicity studies. Initial research studies conducted at the laboratory included work on perchloroethylene (127184), trichloroethylene (79016), acetone (67641), toluene (108883), methyl- chloride (74873), methylene-chloride (75092), methyl-chloroform (71556), styrene (100425), and xylene (1330207). Acute effects monitored included both physiological and behavioral indicators of exposure. Additional studies were concerned with responses to exposure to carbon-monoxide (630080) combined with methylene- chloride; alcohol, caffeine, combined with methyl-chloride; and methyl-chloride combined with diazepam (439145). In the 1980s work consisted of in house laboratory efforts coupled with extramural research grants. Some of this work included methyl-n-butyl-ketone (591786) exposures in a textile coating facility and the resulting neuropathy. NIOSH also sponsored conferences and workshops to help spread their information. The first meeting was held in 1973 and concerned the early detection of occupational hazards through changes in behavior where one of the sessions dealt with worker exposure to solvents. A second conference, held 10 years later, dealt with preventing neurotoxic illnesses among the working population and offered research summaries of neurotoxic effects of chemical exposures and recommended a battery of tests which were suitable for screening for neurotoxicity. Areas for future study were delineated.