Grant-KA; Putz-Anderson-V; Cohen-A
Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3, Part B, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice: Biological Responses. Cralley LJ, Cralley, LV, Bus JS, eds., New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1995 Jan; 3(B):439-479
Applying ergonomic concepts to industrial hazard prevention and control was discussed. The general characteristics of ergonomic approaches as they relate to occupational safety and health problems were summarized. Most progress to date has been made in the identification of poorly designed workplaces and tools. Techniques used in identifying ergonomic hazards in the workplace were discussed. These included passive surveillance techniques which rely on collecting data from sources such as accident reports, dispensary or clinic records, OSHA 200 logs, and workers compensation records, and active surveillance techniques which are based on questionnaire and interview surveys and physical examinations that are designed to obtain information from workers about potential problems in the workplace. Specific ergonomic techniques used for evaluating and controlling occupational hazards were considered. Evaluating ergonomic hazards involves evaluating the physical, mental, and perceptual demands of jobs, evaluating the capability of a worker to perform a specific job, and obtaining appropriate physiological measures to assess probable worker performance. Controlling ergonomic hazards involves developing and implementing a system of engineering and administrative controls, and encouraging or specifying use of personal protective equipment. Selected case studies and the results of other field research involving application of ergonomic approaches to solving occupational problems were presented. These included redesigning tools and equipment to reduce the risk of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) during carpet laying and jewelry making, redesigning workstations to reduce the CTD risk during grocery checking and video display terminal work, and redesigning work methods or designs to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal problems in meatpacking and warehousing jobs.
Work-analysis; Biomechanics; Video-display-terminals; Cumulative-trauma-disorders; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Ergonomics; Injury-prevention; Case-studies; Control-methods; Meat-packing-industry; Grocery-stores; Retail-workers
Book or book chapter
Cralley-LJ; Cralley-LV; Bus-JS
Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Vol. 3, Part B, Theory and Rationale of Industrial Hygiene Practice: Biological Responses