Factors which contribute to the heat stress risk in waste abatement workers included, working outside with high ambient temperatures and solar radiation exposure, high levels of energy expenditure, the use of totally encapsulating chemical protective clothing, and the physiological burden of using self contained breathing apparatus. The magnitude of the heat stress problem in the construction industry in general, and in waste abatement in particular, was discussed. When environmental heat load and metabolic heat production together exceed the capacity of the body to maintain normal functions, heat stress will occur. Conditions likely to be a factor in heat stress include high ambient air temperature, high humidity, high radiative heat, and absence of air movement. Thermoregulatory responses to heat were described. The consequences of environmental heat exposure in workers was considered. Safe work practices for waste abatement workers were discussed, and current research findings were reviewed.