Health care worker exposure to aerosolized ribavirin: biological and air monitoring.
Shults RA; Baron S; Decker J; Deitchman SD; Connor JD
J Occup Environ Med 1996 Mar; 38(3):257-263
Urinary ribavirin (36791045) concentrations were measured post work shift for occupationally exposed nurses and respiratory therapists, and full shift personal breathing zone air concentrations were measured during the use of different administration units. Post work shift urine samples were collected from 36 exposed health care workers for a total of 48 shifts. Twenty one of the 48 samples contained detectable ribavirin levels. Of the 26 samples provided by nurses, 16 contained ribavirin; of 22 samples provided by respiratory therapists, five contained ribavirin. Urinary ribavirin levels were significantly higher in nurses than in respiratory therapists. Full shift breathing zone air samples were collected from nurses over 16 shifts. Ribavirin administration methods included the Aerosol Delivery Hood (ADH), the ADH or a mist tent enclosed by a Demistifier isolation chamber, a mist tent alone, or direct coupling to a mechanical ventilator. Ribavirin levels were lower when it was administered by ventilator or by an aerosol administration unit enclosed by an aerosol containment tent. Administration units not enclosed by an aerosol containment tent were associated with high breathing zone levels. The authors recommend that aerosol containment devices be used with all types of ribavirin administration units except mechanical ventilators.
NIOSH-Author; Biological-monitoring; Occupational-exposure; Health-care-personnel; Pharmaceuticals; Medical-equipment; Urinalysis; Humans; Breathing-zone
Ruth Shults, MPH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 4770 Buford Highway, Northeast, Mailstop K-63, Atlanta, GA 30341-3724
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine