Immunochemical biological monitoring for herbicide exposure.
Hull-RD; Biagini-RE; MacKenzie-B; Phipps-F; Robertson-S; Hines-CJ
Sixth US-Finnish Joint Symposium on Occupational Health and Safety, People and Work, Proceedings of the Sixth FIOH-NIOSH Joint Symposium on Occupational Health and Safety, 8-10 August 1995, Espoo, Finland. People and Work - Research Reports 3. H. Nordman, J. Starck, A. Tossavainen, E. Viikari-Juntura, eds. Helsinki, Finland: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health; 1995 Aug; :92-95
The results of an evaluation of immunochemical assays used for determining alachlor (15972608), 2,4-D (94757), metolachlor (51218452), atrazine (1912249), and cyanazine (21725462) were summarized. Commercial microplate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for determining alachlor and 2,4-D, microtiter plate ELISA kits for determining alachlor, metolachlor, and atrazine, and magnetic particle based ELISA kits for determining alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, 2,4-D, and cyanazine were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from male cynomolgus-monkeys up to 48 hours after they had been injected intravenously with 0.39 to 0.44mg/kg alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, or 2,4-D and analyzed for the compounds using all ELISA kits to determine if metabolites produced by any of the compounds interfered with the analysis of the target herbicide. Increasing the quantity of urine in samples decreased the sensitivity of the assays, particularly for urine/water ratios greater than 1:100. This effect was less pronounced in the magnetic particle based assays. Alachlor and metolachlor metabolites produced significant interferences in most assay kits except the magnetic particle based kits. All five herbicides were essentially quantitatively eliminated within 48 hours. At least 80% of the compounds were eliminated within 24 hours. Additionally, urine samples were collected from 12 commercial herbicide applicators throughout their workday and analyzed for metabolite equivalents of the herbicides using the ELISA kits. The amounts of herbicide applied on the day of sampling and the day before were excellently correlated with the metabolite equivalents measured by the assays. The authors conclude that the ELISA kits appear to be suitable for determining alachlor, metolachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, and 2,4-D in human urine samples after accounting for positive interferences. The magnetic particle based ELISA kits appear to be least sensitive to interferences.
Immunochemistry; Analytical-methods; Laboratory-animals; Chlorophenoxy-herbicides; Chlorinated-hydrocarbon-pesticides; In-vivo-studies; Urinalysis; Occupational-exposure
15972-60-8; 94-75-7; 51218-45-2; 1912-24-9; 21725-46-2
Nordman-H; Starck-J; Tossavainen-A; Viikari-Juntura-E
Sixth US-Finnish Joint Symposium on Occupational Health and Safety, People and Work, Proceedings of the Sixth FIOH-NIOSH Joint Symposium on Occupational Health and Safety, 8-10 August 1995, Espoo, Finland. People and Work - Research Reports 3