Epidemiological issues associated with occupational hearing loss were explored in this review. Strategies for the analysis of occupational hearing loss were described. Lists of characteristics of noise induced or chemically induced hearing loss as well as descriptions of the clinical presentations of such occurrences intended to assist in their diagnosis were presented. Several types of epidemiologic studies, such as cross sectional, case/control, retrospective and prospective cohort, and nested case/control studies, were described and critiqued. Considerations in study design including sample size, survey measures and instruments, the role of bias, subject recruitment, and clinical evaluation were discussed. In addition, aspects of data analysis such as the contribution of different audiometric tests to the outcome of epidemiological studies of occupational hearing loss and the roles of multicollinearity, confounding, and effect modification were examined. The authors conclude that a careful identification of subtle underlying associations and confounders is needed for the examination of complex exposure/disease relationships.