Interaction of tobacco smoking with occupational and environmental factors.
Pinkerton-KE; Grimes-SH; Schenker-MB
Occupational and environmental respiratory disease. Harber P; Schenker MB; Balmes JR, eds. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1995 Jul; :827-834
The interaction between cigarette smoking and occupational and environmental exposures was reviewed. Reports have indicated synergistic effects between cigarette smoking and exposure to other substances on disease risk or severity. Other factors associated with the development of smoking related diseases and/or the use of tobacco products have included societal components such as occupation and social strata as well as gender. Trace contaminants such as heavy metals and a variety of gaseous, vapor, and particulate compounds have been found in tobacco smoke. Studies have demonstrated an additive effect of smoking and dust exposure on the risk of chronic cough and phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness, a relationship between smoking and asbestos exposure and the risk of pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer, multiplicative or additive effects of radon (10043922) plus cigarette smoke exposure, and a possible independent effect of smoking and exposure to particulate air pollution. Reports on the pathogenesis of the interactive effects between smoking and occupational and environmental exposures were reviewed. Such studies have implicated factors such as risk of sensitization, particle clearance mechanisms, immune system responsiveness, activation of inflammation due to pulmonary damage, alterations in mucociliary transport, and irritative effects in possibly contributing in the progression to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.
Cigarette-smoking; Occupational-exposure; Environmental-exposure; Toxic-effects; Synergism; Lung-disease; Epidemiology; Etiology; Health-hazards; Respiratory-system-disorders
Harber-P; Schenker-MB; Balmes-JR
Occupational and environmental respiratory disease
University of California - Davis