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Emission factor development for intermittent workplace sources.

Wadden RA; Scheff PA; Franke JE; Conroy LM
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R01-OH-002804, 1995 Mar; :1-14
A study was performed to develop a method for generalizing the design of engineering control of workplace hazards. The authors proposed to develop a library of emission factors, based on field observations, for a series of commonly encountered, hazardous, unit operations. Four types of open tank processes were considered: vapor degreasing, chromium and copper electroplating, offset printing, and wave soldering. A total of 13 evaluations were performed: three tests of offset printing operations, four of degreasers, three of wave soldering and three of electroplating. Determinations were made of emissions from 16 different units which discharged hazardous materials at ten different sites. Each test consisted of 12 1 hour sampling periods and measurements of general and local exhaust ventilation. Average total emissions from three uncontrolled methylchloroform (71556) degreasers were between 0.39 an 0.74 kilogram/hour. Total emissions from a terpene degreaser were 0.69 kilograms limonene (138863) per hour. Methylene-chloride (75092) emissions into the workplace were monitored. Uncontrolled emissions from all three lead (7439921) wave soldering lines in the same space averaged 86 milligrams of lead/hour. The copper emission factor for releases into the workspace from electroplating was 0.5 to 2.7 micrograms/ampere x hour. Daily emission of 79 to 82 kilograms of volatile organic compounds were measured from one print room in a large commercial concern which contained three web fed, heat set lines served by catalytic air pollution control devices. The authors note that the value of the emission factor approach is that the effect of the particular interior space in which the data are collected is removed. The results of the study provided: a compilation of activity based emission factors for the four mentioned processes; a measure of the variability in emissions to be expected from such processes; actual determination of control device performance for each process studied based on an emission mass balance; a generalized basis for estimating workplace concentrations from these types of sources; and a mass balance basis for evaluating control design alternatives.
NIOSH-Grant; Control-technology; Air-quality-monitoring; Air-sampling; Risk-analysis; Industrial-hygiene; Industrial-emission-sources; Solvent-vapor-degreasing
University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health (M/C 922), Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, 2121 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612
71-55-6; 138-86-3; 75-09-2; 7439-92-1
Publication Date
Document Type
Final Grant Report
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Fiscal Year
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NIOSH Division
Source Name
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Performing Organization
University of Illinois at Chicago, School of Public Health, Chicago, Illinois
Page last reviewed: May 11, 2023
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division