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Epidemiologic practice. Basic principles.
Occupational medicine, third edition. Zenz C, Dickerson OB, Horvath EP Jr., eds. St. Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book, Inc., 1994 Jan; :28-36
The basic principles underlying epidemiologic studies and the usefulness of epidemiologic studies for occupational physicians were discussed in this chapter. The circumstances under which occupational physicians can utilize epidemiological methods or studies were described. These included investigating individual cases of injury or illness; initiating, conducting, and evaluating epidemiologic reports; and investigating epidemics. The conceptual framework for investigating disease from the individual case standpoint and from the epidemiologic standpoint was reviewed. The review considered the occupational sentinel health event concept, first proposed by NIOSH in the 1980s, and procedures for investigating individual cases, clusters of disease, and epidemics. The basic units of measure and terminology used in epidemiological research were described. Terminology and measures discussed included incidence rate, mortality rate, specific mortality rate, proportionate mortality rate, case fatality rate, case fatality rate, standardized mortality ratio, bias, confounding, and healthy worker effect. Comparability and its effect in epidemiological studies were discussed. The role of epidemiological studies in preventing occupational diseases was considered.
Epidemiology; Occupational-medicine; Risk-analysis; Mortality-data; Disease-incidence; Biological-monitoring; Case-studies; Biostatistics;
Book or book chapter;
Zenz-C; Dickerson-OB; Horvath-EP Jr.
Occupational medicine, third edition
Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division