The continuum of prevention during industrial development: new markets and the introduction of old and new technologies.
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: hazards and risks of chemicals in the oil refining industry. Mehlman MA, Upton A, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1994 Jan; XXIII:661-680
The problem of occupational health and safety in developing countries was discussed. The occurrence of occupational diseases and accidents in industrialized countries has led to their enacting legislation to protect against further illness and injury. Partially as a result of this, a trend has developed in which industries in industrialized countries are being moved to developing countries where occupational health and safety practices are lax. It was noted that most developing countries lack the legal and technical expertise to prevent occupational diseases and accidents. Specific problems in developing countries such as child labor, labor standards, inadequate pay, poor training, shift work, social security, approaches to economic development, and disease surveillance were discussed and contrasted to those in industrialized countries. Special concerns in developing countries considered included problems associated with having to use imported machinery and equipment, personal protective equipment, worker scheduling, public health, worker notification and training, lack of standardization of machinery and equipment designs, and climatic factors. Since most developing countries are in the tropics, the hot humid climate makes the skin more susceptible to toxic chemicals than in temperate zones. These conditions also create problems with using personal protective equipment since such equipment was not designed for use in hot, humid, tropical environments. Factors hindering development of occupational disease prevention programs in developing countries were considered. The cultivation and use of tobacco as a major public health problem in developing countries was mentioned. This problem reflects the fact that tobacco is the most widely grown nonfood cash crop. Occupational health concerns associated with the use of asbestos (1332214) in developing countries were discussed. An analytical program known as the Continuum of Prevention for preventing occupational diseases in developing countries was described and illustrated using prevention of asbestos related diseases as an example.
NIOSH-Author; Industrial-safety; Occupational-health; Sociological-factors; Hazardous-materials; Climatic-factors; Asbestos-dust; Occupational-exposure; Disease-prevention; Occupational-health-programs
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: hazards and risks of chemicals in the oil refining industry. Mehlman MA, Upton A, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology