Child labor: risks and prospects for prevention.
Landrigan PJ; Pollack SH; Godbold JG; Belville R
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: hazards and risks of chemicals in the oil refining industry. Mehlman MA, Upton A, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1994 Jan; XXIII:559-569
The risks and ways to prevent the abuse of children through inappropriate child labor were discussed. The definition of child labor was given along with the historical background for its occurrence. Three factors for the current extent of child labor in the United States included increased poverty, unstable world conditions, and relaxation in the enforcement of the Federal Child Labor Law since 1980. Risks of child labor included injuries, which were the leading cause of death in children older than one year, and accounting for 45% of all mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years; food slicers; and chronic illness and toxic exposure. Health risks of agricultural child labor involved physical injuries from farm machinery, blunt trauma from large animals, motor vehicle accidents, suffocation in grain elevators and silos, and pesticide exposure. Special hazards of illegal child labor were listed and a calculation for the quantification of the associated hazards was presented. Recommendations for prevention included defining the extent and severity of child labor through the development of better data, educational programs, reviews of existing regulations, discontinuation of federal initiatives to relax child labor restrictions, and stricter enforcement of existing child labor laws.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Traumatic-injuries; Occupational-sociology; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Epidemiology; Accident-analysis; Job-analysis; Children; Regulations
Community Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine One Gustave L Levy Place New York, NY 10029
Mehlman MA; Upton A
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: hazards and risks of chemicals in the oil refining industry. Mehlman MA, Upton A, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York