NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search
Characterization of occupational and residential lead exposure at a stained-glass studio.
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1994 Oct; 9(10):678-680
In response to a request from owners of a stained glass window making studio located in the Midwest, an investigation was made on the possible hazardous working conditions at the site, paying specific attention to the exposure of the workers to lead (7439921). Samples were taken from all possible areas of exposure at the studio for 5 days; all samples were analyzed for lead. Blood samples from the artists were also taken for an assessment of blood lead and zinc-protoporphyrin levels. Air samples did not indicate deviations from the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) except during the whiting process, where personal breathing zone samples indicated measurements above the OSHA PEL of 50 micrograms/cubic meter. Surface wipe samples indicated substantial quantities of lead at the workshop, but zero to trace levels from the home. Bulk samples taken before and after the whiting process indicated that lead dust was generated during the whiting process due to absence of lead prior to use and a lead concentration of 1100 micrograms/gram immediately after use. Carpet dust vacuum samples revealed minimal quantifiable concentrations of lead. Soil samples did not show drastic differences between lead levels at home and workplace. Blood lead concentrations were primarily below the 10 micrograms/deciliter. Inhalation of lead dust/fume and ingestion resulting from hand to mouth contact with lead contaminated food, cigarettes, clothing, or other objects were determined to be the major routes of worker exposure to lead. Results indicated that the ventilation system and hygiene practices used by the personnel are minimizing lead exposure and contamination.
NIOSH-Author; Metal-fumes; Metal-dusts; Occupational-exposure; Arts-and-crafts; Blood-analysis; Ventilation-systems; Environmental-contamination; Work-environment
Issue of Publication
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division