NIOSH 1994 Jan; :93-106
Designing health care facilities to prevent airborne nosocomial infection was discussed. The need for incorporating airborne infection control features into the designs for new health care facilities, particularly isolation rooms or facilities, was discussed. Within general acute care facilities, most of the attention regarding the isolation needs of patients have focused on patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and others with immunosuppression and the need to protect them against opportunistic infections. Because of this, public awareness of the return of tuberculosis (TB) as a major health problem has been so relatively recent and of such limited extent that little attention has been paid to building design as a specific response. The use of sanitoria for isolating TB patients has been abandoned. Many new health care facilities have been built using energy efficient mechanical systems for ventilation, thus allowing potentially dangerous concentrations of TB to get into the recirculated air. It was noted that because of this, a shortage of appropriate isolation facilities exist in the United States. Specific planning and design guidelines for isolation facilities were presented. The guidelines deal with developing methodologies for determining the number of inpatient acute and intensive care infection isolation rooms needed for a given projected patient population and identifying criteria and parameters for determining the feasibility of renovating existing construction to provide isolation capacity for inpatient and outpatient facilities. Psychosocial and ethical issues associated with designing infectious disease isolation facilities were considered. Possible alternatives to hospital based care for providing for TB patients were discussed.
Health-care-facilities; Equipment-design; Biohazards; Infection-control; Bacterial-infections; Microorganisms; Disease-transmission; Respiratory-system-disorders
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-106
Proceedings of the Workshop on Engineering Controls for Preventing Airborne Infections in Workers in Health Care and Related Facilities, July 14-16, 1993, Cincinnati, Ohio