A case study in avoiding a deadly legacy in developing countries.
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: asbestos and cancers. Upton A, Mehlman MA, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1994 Jan; :465-496
Current knowledge about health hazards associated with exposure to asbestos was reviewed in an effort to apply such knowledge to the prevention of asbestos related disease epidemics in developing countries. Asbestos exportation to developing countries has increased due its restricted use in industrialized nations and the existence of few regulations regarding its use in the developing world. This phenomenon has the potential to cause a series of health tragedies that have already been experienced by industrialized nations prior to the recognition of hazardous effects of this product. An historic review of asbestos mining, production, and use was presented. It was estimated that up to 5 million United States workers have been occupationally exposed to asbestos and such exposures have been associated with the development of asbestosis, lung cancer, and other cancers. The risk to workers has been found to be directly related to exposure levels and, limits for asbestos exposures have been established by NIOSH and OSHA in the United States; an absolute minimum no effect level has never been demonstrated. Regulations dealing with asbestos exposure established by different countries were described. The history of the recognition of the hazards associated with asbestos exposure and the development of governmental regulations and industrial safeguards were reviewed. The authors conclude that examination of the lessons learned by the industrialized world after the epidemic of asbestos related disease created in the first half of the twentieth century can be applied to developing nations to prevent the reoccurrence of the same tragedies.
NIOSH-Author; Asbestos-products; Asbestos-fibers; Epidemiology; Toxic-effects; Industrial-hazards; Health-hazards; Occupational-hazards; Lung-disease
The identification and control of environmental and occupational diseases: asbestos and cancers. Upton A, Mehlman MA, eds. Princton, NJ; Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology