An investigation was conducted of the increased risk of bladder cancer among a cohort of dry cleaning workers; this study also confirmed the increased risk of esophageal cancer, documented the risks for other cancers, particularly those of the liver, kidney, and lung, and suggested an association with perchloroethylene (127184) (PCE). Cancer mortality was significantly elevated among workers with 20 or more years of latency since first exposure and 5 or more years of employment in shops using PCE. In that cohort there were a total of 209 cancer deaths observed and 169.7 expected for a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.23. A pattern of increased mortality with longer latency and employment was noted for the three cancers in significant excess (esophageal, intestinal, and bladder) and for pancreatic cancer. Results were similar in other analyses relating duration of employment to cancer rates in any dry cleaning establishment. Women experienced a statistically significant excess of esophageal cancer deaths and elevated SMRs for intestinal, pancreatic, and urinary tract cancers. Deaths from breast cancer and from cancers of the female genital organs were not in excess among women. Men demonstrated elevated SMRs for esophageal, intestinal, and pancreatic cancers along with a significant excess mortality for tongue cancer and bladder cancer. In the subcohort exposed to both PCE and other solvents, intestinal, pancreatic, and bladder cancers were present in significant excess. Mortality due to esophageal cancer was elevated in both cohorts exposed to PCE only and PCE plus other agents.