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Occupational hazards to fertility and pregnancy outcome.
Gold EB; Tomich E
Occup Med: State of the Art Rev 1994 Jul; 9(3):435-469
Occupational hazards associated with negative fertility and pregnancy outcomes were reviewed. Epidemiological methods used to record data and analyze different reproductive hazards and outcomes were discussed. Occupational exposures that have been reported to induce menstrual disorders have included fluoride (16984488), toluene (108883), perchloroethylene (127184), mercury (7439976), and physical exposures such as noise and stress. Exposures that have been associated with decreased fertility have included textile dyes, dry cleaning chemicals, metals, antibiotics, and nitrous-oxide (10024972). Spontaneous abortions have been reported to be associated with the use of video display terminals, magnetic field exposures, microwave radiation, organic solvents, germicides, and metals, among other chemical and physical agents. Increases in preterm births have been reported in those with jobs with high levels of fatigue and/or physical exertion and exposures to metals or agricultural chemicals while low birthweights have been reported in those with exposure to electromagnetic fields and work in service, manufacturing, agricultural, electrical, electronics, and leather industries. Shift work, work in noisy environments, and exposure to metals and solvents have been reported to be associated with pregnancy induced hypertension.
Epidemiology; Occupational-hazards; Reproductive-hazards; Reproductive-system-disorders; Heavy-metals; Metal-compounds; Organic-solvents; Occupational-exposure; Video-display-terminals; Menstrual-disorders; Agricultural-chemicals; Electromagnetic-radiation
16984-48-8; 108-88-3; 127-18-4; 7439-97-6; 10024-97-2
Gold EB; Lasler BL; Schenker MB
Issue of Publication
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Reproductive Hazards
University of California - Davis
Page last reviewed: February 25, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division