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Occupational hazards to male reproduction.
Schrader SM; Kanitz MH
Occup Med: State of the Art Rev 1994 Jul; 9(3):405-414
Epidemiological approaches to studying male occupational reproductive hazards were reviewed. Problems that have been associated with the use of population based studies linking job titles or descriptions with reproductive outcomes have included the inability to control for potentially confounding lifestyle factors and possible nondifferential misclassifications of exposure. Case/control studies based upon interviews of participants may yield misleading results due to recall bias or bias on the part of the interviewer. Standardized fertility or birth ratios have been used to compare the number of observed with expected births within a population. Bias has existed in these types of analyses as well due to assumptions about marital status and frequency of intercourse. Standardized fertility ratios appear to have overestimated the birth rate in both referent and exposed populations and were suggested for use only when both referent and comparison populations were selected on the same basis. Cohort studies were described as providing the most information and therefore being most likely to detect adverse reproductive effects. Drawbacks associated with the use of these types of studies were noted as well including the complexity of such studies and their expense. Case studies reported by medical personnel have been found to be useful as first steps in identifying toxic substances and in initiating further studies.
NIOSH-Author; Reproductive-hazards; Fertility; Epidemiology; Reproductive-system-disorders; Medical-screening; Screening-methods; Occupational-exposure
Gold EB; Lasler BL; Schenker MB
Issue of Publication
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Reproductive Hazards
Page last reviewed: February 25, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division