A previously studied cohort of white males employed in a Charleston, South Carolina asbestos textile factory was followed up for an additional 15 years; data on mortality in white female and black male workers were also analyzed. A nested case/control study was undertaken to examine possible differences in lung cancer exposure/response by textile operation. The predominant exposure at the facility was to chrysotile (12001295) asbestos. The possible confounding due to mineral-oil (8012951) exposures was also examined. Significant excess mortality was found among white male workers due to lung cancer, all causes of death, all cancers, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases, and accidents. White females showed significant elevated mortality due to lung cancer, all causes of death, pneumoconiosis and other respiratory diseases, and other respiratory cancers. The black males showed significant elevated mortality for pneumoconiosis. A positive exposure/response relationship was determined for both lung cancer and pneumoconiosis. An increase in the relative risk of lung cancer was noted at 2 to 3% for the entire cohort for each fiber/cubic centimeter year of cumulative chrysotile exposure. For the white male workers this relation was the most consistent. The excess risk for lung cancer among white males and females appeared to occur at cumulative exposures lower than those for black males. Employment in preparation and carding operations was associated with a slightly reduced lung cancer risk. Working in the spinning and twisting activities was associated with a statistically significant increased lung cancer risk compared to other facility operations. Slightly longer fibers were found in spinning and twisting compared to other textile operations. Little effect of mineral-oil exposures was noted on the lung cancer exposure/response estimates. Two deaths were noted to be due to mesothelioma.