This testimony summarized information and comments regarding efforts of NIOSH to prevent violence in the workplace, with special emphasis on crime in small businesses. Homicide was the third leading cause of death from traumatic injury in the workplace from 1980 through 1989, accounting for 12% of the 63,589 who died. It was the leading cause of death among women, accounting for 41% of all their occupational injury deaths. These were clustered in specific workplaces and occupations, especially small businesses. Taxi drivers and law enforcement personnel had the highest rates; other groups with high rate included employees in liquor stores, gas stations, detective and protective services, justice and public order agencies, grocery stores, jewelry stores, hotels and motels, and restaurants and bars. For nonfatal violence, one group at risk was health care and community service workers. Half of the workers' compensation claims from the Washington State psychiatric hospital were for work related assaults. Routine face to face contact with large numbers of people, handling money, delivering passengers or goods, and jobs involving more than a single work site or routine travel were all associated with nonfatal assault at work. Women working alone were at increased risk of sexual assault. Prevention and intervention activities have been researched by NIOSH and reports have been published including an Alert concerning a request for assistance in preventing homicide in the workplace which sought to inform workers and employers about the dangers.