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Characterization of air contaminants formed by the interaction of lava and sea water.
Kullman-GJ; Jones-WG; Cornwell-RJ; Parker-JE
Environ Health Perspect 1994 May; 102(5):478-482
Contaminants generated when basaltic lava from Hawaii's Kilauea volcano enters seawater were characterized. Air samples of lava and sea emissions (LAZE) were analyzed by gravimetric methods, X-ray diffraction, atomic emission spectroscopy, light microscopy, transmission microscopy, scanning microscopy, gas chromatography, ion chromatography, pH measurements, or colorimetric methods. Samples were taken at beach areas 10 to 400 yards from the LAZE source, a road block west of Kalapana, the town of Kalapana, Hawaii Volcanos National Park, and at a background location 20 miles from the emission source. Samples were collected for 4 days. The results indicated that the LAZE contained significant concentrations of hydrochloric-acid (7647010) (HCl) and hydrofluoric-acid (7664393) (HF), with HCl being the most prominent. HCl and HF concentrations were highest in dense plumes of emissions near the sea where HCl concentrations averaged 7.1 parts per million (ppm) and HF concentrations were less than 1ppm. Sulfur-dioxide (7446095) was detected in a small percentage of the samples at 1.5ppm. Sodium- chloride (7647145) particles were the most prominent airborne particulate. Settled dust samples were predominantly made up of glass flakes and fibers. Airborne fibers consisted mostly of hydrated calcium salts. The authors conclude that individuals should avoid exposure to the concentrated emission sources near the sea to prevent overexposure to acid gases. When occupational exposure to LAZE near the source is necessary, appropriate personal protective gear should be used.
NIOSH-Author; Air-contamination; Environmental-contamination; Sea-water; Inorganic-acids; Mineral-salts; Airborne-fibers; Acid-mists;
7647-01-0; 7664-39-3; 7446-09-5; 7647-14-5
Issue of Publication
Environmental Health Perspectives
Page last reviewed: May 5, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division