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Motivational and organizational factors affecting implementation of worker safety training.
Occup Med: State of the Art Rev 1994 Apr; 9(2):211-240
Motivational and organizational factors that affect the implementation of worker safety training programs were reviewed. A model was developed that incorporated basic ideas about the effectiveness of safety training. The core of this model relied on Kirkpatrick's distinction among four types of criteria: trainee reactions, learning, behavior, and results. It also incorporated Porter and Lawler's model of individual performance in an organizational setting, which was recognized as a function knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Motivation involved a balance between time, effort, and energy required for task performance on the one hand, and feelings of comfort on the other. Workgroup climate was important because it represented workers' perception of events and conditions, and was affected by actions of workers, as well as supervisors, and managers. Interrelationships among the elements of the model were examined and included different types of safety behavior (deviations from approved procedures, improper use of protective equipment, and motivations), safety training (workers' KSAs, and role perceptions), safety motivation (workgroup climate, norms, task feedback, and organizational control systems), and interventions to improve safety training implementation (reinforcements, goal setting, risk communications, and organizational development interventions). Recommendations for safety training implementation were presented, with particular stress on management's responsibility, commitment, and efforts to involve workers and to establish workgroup norms that did not conflict with safety practices. The author concludes that by addressing motivational and organizational factors it is possible to successfully implement worker safety training.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Contract; Education; Industrial-safety-programs; Mathematical-models; Safety-education; Occupational-health; Occupational-psychology; Occupational-safety-programs; Safety-measures; Work-environment; Worker-motivation
Issue of Publication
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Occupational Safety and Health Training
Page last reviewed: February 25, 2022
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division