Human peripheral nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were investigated using data collected by the Centers for Disease Control on 2,490 Vietnam War veterans and 1,972 nonveterans as part of the Vietnam Experience Study. Nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were measured for the median motor, median sensory, ulnar sensory, peroneal motor, and sural sensory nerves from the dominant limbs of each subject using antidromic stimulation and electromyography (EMG). Standard questionnaires were administered on a wide variety of health related issues. After exclusion criteria were applied, 4,056 of the subjects remained. The effects of skin temperature, height, body mass index, age, race, place of military service, smoking status, alcohol consumption, income, and EMG examiner were estimated for all conduction outcomes. Data were fitted to general linear models. Results showed that the major covariates were skin temperature, height, and EMG examiner. Less important covariates were age, race, smoking status, and income. Conduction measures were only slightly affected by alcohol consumption. The authors conclude that the results provide a basis for the selection of variables for measuring nerve conduction in epidemiological studies.