Dermal exposure assessment techniques.
Ann Occup Hyg 1993 Dec; 37(6):687-706
A discussion was presented of the need to assess dermal exposures and to define dermal exposure pathways. Evaluation was made of the relevance of current sampling techniques within the context of a dermal exposure assessment strategy. Consideration was given to the feasibility of establishing dermal occupational exposure limits for the skin. Specific issues discussed included exposure pathways, sampling techniques (including surrogate skin, chemical removal and fluorescent tracers), dermal exposure sampling strategy, and dermal occupational exposure limits. Exposure was noted to usually occur through immersion, deposition of aerosol or uptake of vapor through the skin, or through surface contact. A preliminary dermal exposure sampling strategy was proposed which addressed such issues as sampling method, representativeness and sample duration. In spite of the limitations of current assessment techniques, the author concludes that it appears feasible to consider developing dermal occupational exposure limits for selected workplaces and chemical agents. The initial development of these exposure limits would be particularly useful where dermal exposure is primarily from surface contact and where the work performed closely follows a routine. The author stresses the importance of improving dermal exposure assessment techniques in the search for better worker protection on the job.
Skin-exposure; Skin-absorption; Sampling-methods; Aerosol-sampling; Chemical-factory-workers; Skin-protection; Skin-irritants; Occupational-exposure
Department of Environmental Health, SC-34, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington Seattle WA 98195, U.S.A.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
Rutgers the State Univ New Brunswick, New Brunswick, New Jersey