Case study at a college rifle range: the effect of a new ventilation system on air and blood lead levels.
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1993 Nov; 8(11):909-911
A study was conducted on possible lead (7439921) exposures in members of a university rifle team due to poor ventilation in the firing range. Blood samples were collected from team members during the first week of the season and again 9 weeks later, and lead and zinc-protoporphyrin (15442645) levels were measured. Team members would practice between two and four times a week by firing 22 caliber target rifles for 60 to 90 minutes at each practice session. The mean velocity of air movement in the firing range was found to be 5.3 feet/minute and the air exchange rate was 1.3 exchanges/hour. The average breathing zone lead level was 176 micrograms/cubic meter. Installation of a new ventilation system resulted in an improvement in air movement to 13.6 feet/minute and an increase in the air exchange rate to 3.2 exchanges/hour. No statistically significant improvements in lead levels in breathing zone air were seen and only marginally significant decreases in blood lead and zinc levels were evident after the installation of the new ventilation system. Significant increases in blood lead levels were seen in four subjects over the 9 week sample period. The authors conclude that significant exposure to lead can occur at firing ranges.
NIOSH-Author; Lead-compounds; Ventilation-systems; Air-flow; Exhaust-ventilation; Air-quality; Environmental-exposure; Health-hazards; Exposure-levels; Airborne-dusts
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene