Snook SH; Fine LJ; Silverstein BA
Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease, Second Edition 1988:345-370
An overview of work related musculoskeletal disorders commonly involving the back, cervical spine, and upper extremities was presented with a framework for recognizing and preventing these problems. Specifics covered relating to low back pain included the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders; signs and symptoms of injury including lumbar insufficiency, lumbago, and sciatica; diagnosis of injury; high risk jobs; management; prognosis; and control. Discussion of prevention of low back pain included the use of mechanical aids, optimum work level planning, good workplace layout, sit and stand work stations, and appropriate packaging to match object weights with human capabilities. Work related disorders of the neck and upper extremities were described with schematic representation of pathophysiology of these disorders, treatment, and preventive strategy. Control of repetitiveness, forcefulness, awkward posture, vibration, mechanical stress, and cold may reduce risk.
Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Physical-stress; Psychological-stress; Risk-factors; Ergonomics; Case-studies; Back-injuries
Book or book chapter
Levy BS; Wegman DH
Low Back Disorders; Disease and Injury; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders;
Occupational Health, Recognizing and Preventing Work-Related Disease, Second Edition