The risk of renal cell cancer among workers at a paperboard printing and packaging factory was examined. The retrospective cohort study involved 2086 workers. Person years at risk of death were accumulated for each worker starting at the plant on January 1, 1957 or the first day of employment, and ended at date of death or June 30, 1988. The NIOSH life table analysis was used to distribute person years at risk (PYR) over sex, age, and race specific 5 year (yr) time periods and 5yr age groups. Current and former workers who had developed cancer were identified. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated for renal cell and bladder cancers in white males who represented 88% of the PYR. A nested case/control study was carried out to determine relationships, if any, between work assignments and risk of renal cell cancer. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) were reviewed for possible carcinogens among chemicals in the ink mixing and storage rooms. Results showed that 141 workers (7%) were deceased, 1705 (83%) were alive, and 204 (10%) were lost to follow up. Overall mortality was similar to that expected, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.0. The SMR for all cancers was less than expected. One bladder cancer death, and one renal cancer death were recorded. Mortality from unspecified causes was greater than expected. Three workers with bladder cancer (SIR 1.1), and six with renal cell cancer (SIR 3.7) were identified. The association between renal cell cancer risk and duration of employment (5yr or more) was not limited to any single department. Potential carcinogens identified were methylene-chloride (75092), formaldehyde (50000), and trichloroethylene (79016). The authors conclude that an excess risk of renal cell cancer is associated with duration of employment, which is not limited to any single work process. The possibility of a selection bias limitation in the analysis was discussed.