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Use of the guinea pig animal model to characterize the pulmonary response to agricultural dusts: comparison with the reaction to inhalation of cotton dust.

Castranova-V; Robinson-VA; Barger-MW; May-JJ; Dennis-JW; Jones-W; Whitmer-M; Siegel-PD; Frazer-DG
Cotton dust: proceedings of the Sixteenth Cotton Dust Research Conference, beltwide cotton conferences, January 9-10, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee. Domelsmith LN, Jacobs RR, Wakelyn PJ, eds. Memphis, TN: The National Cotton Council of America, 1992 Jan; :251-256
Pulmonary responses were studied in English-short-hair-guinea-pigs exposed to aerosols containing silage or hay dust which had resulted in organic dust toxic syndrome in farm workers. The animals were killed after 18 hours and the lungs were removed. The lungs of some animals were used to measure residual gas volume, a marker of airway obstruction. The lungs of other guinea-pigs were lavaged, and lavage fluid cellularity was determined. The lavagate alveolar macrophages were isolated and their ability to release superoxide in response to stimulation by unopsonized zymosan was evaluated. The dusts were tested for the histamine and endotoxin content. Chopped hay dust had the highest endotoxin content, followed by cotton, burnt hay, and silage dust. Silage dust had the highest histamine content, followed by burnt hay, cotton, and chopped hay dust. All dusts caused an increase in breathing rate, airway obstruction, pulmonary inflammation as manifested by increases in lavageable total cell, polymorphonuclear leukocyte, lymphocyte, and red blood cell counts, and activation of alveolar macrophages to release superoxide. When ranked according to overall responsiveness, chopped hay dust was the most bioactive and burnt hay was the least active. Cotton and silage dust induced responses that varied between those induced by chopped and burnt hay dust. The responses induced by the dusts did not correlate with their endotoxin or histamine content. The authors conclude that the guinea-pig model appears to be useful for predicting the biological activity of agricultural dusts.
Organic-dusts; Cotton-dust; In-vivo-studies; Laboratory-animals; Inhalation-studies; Pulmonary-function; Alveolar-cells; Physiological-response; Airway-obstruction; Endotoxins
Publication Date
Document Type
Conference/Symposia Proceedings
Domelsmith-LN; Jacobs-RR; Wakelyn-PJ
Fiscal Year
Source Name
Cotton dust: proceedings of the Sixteenth Cotton Dust Research Conference, beltwide cotton conferences, January 9-10, 1992, Nashville, Tennessee
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division