Occup Med: State of the Art Rev 1992 Oct; 7(4):609-628
A discussion of the biomechanics associated with occupational low back pain was presented. An overview of biomechanics was presented along with an explanation and description of spinal structures and loading. The three primary forces affecting the lumbar spine (compression, shear, and torsion) were discussed as were the effects of asymmetric loading. The theory of disc degeneration as a result of axial loading, and the compressive strength of the lumbar spinal column were examined. The importance of disc compression has been confirmed in epidemiological studies on incidence rates for low back pain due to excessive compressive forces. A description and discussion of several biomechanical models for the lumbar spine was presented. The effects of intraabdominal pressure on decreasing compressive forces on the spine were reviewed along with the use of different lifting techniques to minimize back strain. Practical applications of the biomechanical studies reviewed for setting limits in industrial settings were discussed.
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