The measurements, methods, and instrumentation used on past, present, and future space missions for in-situ and remote analysis of materials were described and discussed in relation to hazardous materials screening for terrestrial environments. Gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, imaging spectrometers, X-ray, and gamma ray spectrometers were discussed. Concepts and hardware for multispectral remote sensing, instrument data analysis and interpretation, and material acquisition and processing were described. New concepts were considered for micro sensors with which to make various chemical measurements. Several possible applications of the space technology to the analysis of hazardous materials on earth were also presented. The neural network based spectral analysis approach was considered useful for the analysis of infrared, X-ray fluorescence, Raman and mass spectra, if networks are trained with real spectra gathered under the anticipated field conditions. A hierarchical, neural network based spectral identification system was to have several applications including unknown identification, searching for specific compounds, searching for classes of compounds based on specific features, and extracting major components from mixtures.
Field Screening Methods for Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Chemicals. Second International Symposium, February 12-14, 1991. Sponsored by U.S. EPA; U.S. DOE; U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency; U.S. Army Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center; U.S.A.F.; Florida State Univ.; National Environmental Technology Applications Corp.; and NIOSH