Occupational medicine: principles and practical applications, second edition. Zenz C, ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1988 Feb; :1023-1024
The occupational health hazards and toxicity of 4,4'-methylene-bis- (2-chloroaniline) (101144) (MBOCA) were reviewed. Approximately 1400 to 33000 workers in the United States were potentially exposed to MBOCA. The primary route of absorption was through the skin, since there was little relationship between measured workroom air MBOCA levels and urine MBOCA levels of exposed workers. Individuals exposed to MBOCA experienced urinary frequency, hematuria, and transitory inability to reabsorb low molecular weight proteins and concentrate urine. Studies have revealed that MBOCA is carcinogenic in a number of animal species, and therefore should be considered a potential human carcinogen whose most likely target organ is the urinary bladder. NIOSH has recommended that occupational exposure to MBOCA not exceed 3 micrograms/cubic meter of workroom air as a 10 hour time weighted average. The author concludes that MBOCA workplace monitoring by air sampling has not been useful, since contamination may occur in the absence of observable air levels. Urinary monitoring is a useful method to assess percutaneous MBOCA absorption. Engineering controls such as protective clothing and respiratory protection should be implemented to reduce worker MBOCA exposure.
Biological-monitoring; Carcinogenicity; Renal-toxicity; Chlorinated-anilines; Nephrotoxicity; Occupational-exposure; Toxic-effects; Occupational-hazards
Occupational medicine: principles and practical applications, second edition