Toluene diisocyanate and other isocyanates.
Occupational Medicine: Principles and Practical Applications, Second Edition. Zenz C, ed., Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1988 Jan; :1016-1021
The occupational health hazards and toxicity of toluene-diisocyanate (584849) (TDI) and other isocyanates were reviewed. Exposure to high concentrations of TDI resulted in irritation of the eyes, upper respiratory tract, and skin. Individuals sensitized to TDI may experience asthmatic reactions and decreases in pulmonary function during a workshift. It was noted that nonsensitized individuals may have an asthma like response to acute TDI exposure. Chronic exposure to TDI may cause chronic respiratory dysfunction in both sensitized and nonsensitized workers. Ames tests have confirmed that TDI caused frameshift and base pair mutations through its active metabolite 2,4-toluenediamine (95807). Animal studies have revealed that TDI is carcinogenic. The toxicities of naphthalene- diisocyanate (25551284), diphenylmethane-diisocyanate (101688), triphenylmethane-triisocyanate (25656784), polymethylene- polyphenylisocyanate (9016879), and polyurethane prepolymers in relation to occupational exposure were also discussed. The current OSHA standard for TDI exposure was 0.02 parts per million, but NIOSH has recommended a 0.005 parts per million standard time weighted average. The authors conclude that engineering controls and environmental monitoring should be routinely implemented in workplaces exposed to TDI.
Acute-toxicity; Carcinogenicity; Chronic-toxicity; Genotoxic-effects; Mutagenicity; Toxic-effects; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Toluenes; Workplace-monitoring
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Occupational Medicine: Principles and Practical Applications, Second Edition