DeLeon JA; Stern FB; Murthy LI
Occupational medicine: principles and practical applications, second edition. Zenz C, ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1988 Feb; :1008-1011
The occupational health hazards and toxicity of toluene (108883) were reviewed. The main route of entry of toluene into the body was noted to be through inhalation. Toluene was then metabolized by the hepatic mixed function oxidase system and was oxidized to benzoic- acid. Benzoic-acid was conjugated with glycine to form hippuric- acid and was then excreted in the urine. Toluene exposure caused irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin. Acute toluene exposure resulted in central nervous system depression and other neurological manifestations. Excessive exposure also resulted in impaired psychophysiologic function. Toluene was also noted to be a substance of abuse, and prolonged misuse has been associated with diffuse encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy, as well as nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects. Human toluene exposure studies have revealed that exposure to concentrations greater than 200 parts per million may produce central nervous system depression and chromosomal aberrations. Animals studies have shown that toluene concentrations in excess of 1000 parts per million are toxic to the central nervous system. The current standard for toluene exposure is 200 parts per million for an 8 hour work day. Workers exposed to toluene should be provided with preemployment and annual physical examinations. Biological monitoring may be conducted by measuring exhaled air and blood concentrations of toluene, and by measuring urinary hippuric-acid excretion.
Biological-monitoring; Hepatotoxicity; Nephrotoxicity; Neurotoxicity; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-hazards; Toluenes; Toxic-effects
Occupational medicine: principles and practical applications, second edition