Occupational lung diseases in the industrializing and industrialized world: commonalities and contrasts: measurement tools.
Tubercle and Lung Disease 1992 Feb; 73(1):7-12
Progress made in the last decade in the study of occupational lung disease was reviewed and discussed. Specific topics considered in the review included: measuring exposure, measuring effects through the use of questionnaires, physical chest examinations, chest x-ray radiography, and lung function tests including spirometry, isolated peak flow rate, and special tests such as nitrogen washout, lung volumes determination and diffusion capacity; and the use of tests of airway responsiveness as biomarkers of early disease. To measure exposure, the simplest case would be exposed versus nonexposed. However, years of exposure can be used as well in setting the duration of exposure. Job history may provide links to exposures in the past. Subjective indicators of exposure may be useful when air sampling is not feasible. Biological measures of exposure also exist such as monitoring of blood or urine chemicals to determine exposure to workers. For tests of airway responsiveness several procedures were available including histamine, methacholine, cold air, exercise and specific antigen challenge. The author suggests that refinement in measurement tools can proceed in a collaborative fashion with colleagues from around the world concentrating efforts on identifying and eliminating occupational lung disease.
NIOSH-Grant; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-function-tests; Lung-function; Lung-cells; Airway-obstruction; Bronchial-asthma; Lung-irritants; Diagnostic-techniques; Occupational-exposure
Environmental Sci & Physiology Harvard School of Public Hlth 665 Huntington Ave Boston, MA 02115
Tubercle and Lung Disease: Tubercle and Lund Disease: The Official Journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease