A preliminary literature search was conducted on dyes and pigments produced in the United States to investigate the need for an occupational hazard assessment. The potential for hazardous exposures has been large due to the great variety of chemicals involved in the processes, including aromatic amines, highly corrosive acids, highly corrosive alkalis, and dangerous gases. Information was provided on the classes of dyes produced in the United States, the industrial processes used in the production of dyes and pigments, and occupational hazards found in the dye industry. Fifteen dyes and 15 pigments were included in this review based on their high profile in the industry or on concerns by NIOSH as to their particular hazards; information was also provided on starting materials and intermediate chemicals. Occupational exposure, production volume, chemical characteristics, and toxic effects were tabulated for the dyes, pigments, and intermediates.