A Dose-Response Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Lung Cancer Risk and Occupational Cadmium Exposure.
Stayner-L; Smith-R; Thun-M; Schnorr-T; Lemen-R
NIOSH 1990 Sep:35 pages
A quantitative assessment was performed of the risk of lung cancer from exposure to cadmium (7440439) in a population of workers at a facility that processed cadmium metals and compounds. The population consisted of all workers who worked in a production area for at least 6 months from 1940 through 1969; the vital status of the workers was updated through 1984. A total of 606 white male workers, contributing 16,898 person years and 162 deaths were analyzed. A statistically significant dose response was evident in nearly all of the Poisson regression models evaluated. A nearly significant excess in mortality from lung cancer was noted for the entire cohort. Mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated among nonHispanic workers, workers in the highest cadmium exposure group, and among workers with 20 or more years since first exposure. Based on these analyses, the lifetime excess lung cancer risk at the current OSHA standard for cadmium fumes of 100 micrograms per cubic meter was estimated to be approximately 50 to 111 lung cancer deaths per 1000 workers exposed to cadmium for 45 years. The authors conclude that efforts should be made to further reduce the risk by lowering occupational exposures to cadmium to the lowest level feasible.
NIOSH-Author; Cadmium-compounds; Risk-analysis; Epidemiology; Cancer-rates; Carcinogens; Lung-cancer; Respiratory-system-disorders; Occupational-exposure;
NTIS Accession No.
Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Disease and Injury; Respiratory-system-disorders;
Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, NIOSH, Cincinnati, Ohio, 35 pages, 34 references