Diagnosis of asbestos (1332214) related disease using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray energy spectrometry (XES), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) was reviewed. Discussion involved consideration of the following: asbestos minerals; asbestos uses; exposure sources (occupational, avocational, environmental); clinical and radiological features of asbestos associated diseases; disease pathology (pleural plaques, asbestosis, asbestos bodies and fibers, bronchogenic carcinoma, malignant mesothelioma, other cancers); the role of adjunct diagnostic techniques (tissue sampling, autopsy, lung biopsy, LM, extraction from tissues, SEM, XES, TEM, aspect ratio measurements, SAED, automated image analysis, XRD); the clinical and epidemiological significance of asbestos bodies and fibers; and medicolegal considerations. It was stated that LM has been useful in identifying asbestos fibers in environmental samples and in determining asbestos bodies in tissue sections and digests. Transmission electron microscopes with XES and SAED capabilities were able to provide information on morphology, crystal structure, and chemical composition of asbestos fibers; SEM was considered less useful since it cannot provide for electron diffraction. The authors conclude that microanalytical techniques are useful for confirming asbestos exposure diagnoses.