Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Second Edition, Vol. 3A: The Work Environment 1985 Jan; 3:509-535
Analytical chemistry and its role in industrial hygiene were reviewed. Factors that determine the validity of analytical data used in industrial hygiene studies were discussed. These include determining the accuracy and precision of the chosen sampling and analytical methods, validating the methods, using appropriate reference materials, and proficiency testing. Collecting samples for industrial hygiene research and preparing the samples for analysis were discussed. Classical wet chemical techniques such as acid base and redox titrations or gravimetric determinations have generally been superseded by instrumental techniques. The choice of which technique to use is usually determined by considering the sensitivity of the methods available. Industrial hygiene studies rely heavily on gas chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry. Other methods used in the NIOSH and OSHA standards program include ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, specific ion based electrochemical methods, combustible gas metering, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence spectroscopy, and high performance liquid chromatography. Emerging analytical techniques include inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, X-ray fluorescence, ion chromatography, derivative spectroscopy, and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Problems that can hinder development of validated sampling and analytical procedures were discussed.