Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-90-200-2158, Hawaii State Health Department.
Kullman-GJ; Jones-B; Parker-JE
NIOSH 1991 Nov; :1-35
In response to a request from the Hawaii State Health Department, an investigation was made of possible hazardous occupational and community exposures to lava and sea water emissions (LAZE) occurring when the lava flow from Hawaii's Kilauea volcano vaporized sea water. Air samples were collected during 4 days. Samples were collected within visible plumes of LAZE on March 13, 14, and 18, 1990. Hydrochloric-acid (7647010) concentrations at this sampling location averaged 7.1 parts per million (ppm). Hydrofluoric-acid (7664393) concentrations were less than 1ppm. Acid concentrations decreased with distance from the source. Sulfur-dioxide (7446095) was detected at approximately 1.5ppm. Airborne particulates were comprised largely of chloride salts. Crystalline silica (14808607) concentrations were below detectable limits, approximately centimeter in one sample and were comprised primarily of a hydrated calcium-sulfate (7778189) similar to the mineral gypsum. Glass fibers were detected in some samples. The authors conclude that individuals should avoid exposure to concentrated plumes of LAZE near its origin and thereby avoid exposure to inorganic acids, particularly hydrochloric-acid. Those individuals with cardiopulmonary conditions may be at increased risk and should avoid all contact with LAZE. The authors recommend specific measures to reduce exposures.
NIOSH-Author; NIOSH-Health-Hazard-Evaluation; NIOSH-Technical-Assistance-Report; HETA-90-200-2158; Hazard-Confirmed; Region-9; Respiratory-system-disorders; Acid-mists; Mineral-dusts; Environmental-contamination; Chlorides; Airborne-dusts; Fibrous-dusts;
Author Keywords: Volcano; Lava; LAZE; Hydrochloric Acid; Hydrofluoric Acid; Sulfur Dioxide; Fibrous Glass; Gypsum
7647-01-0; 7664-39-3; 7446-09-5; 14808-60-7; 7778-18-9;
Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance; Field Studies
NTIS Accession No.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health