Studies of the effectiveness of the OSHA have uniformly shown little or no reduction in workplace injury rates. Although there is certainly room for improvement in its current policies, even an extremely well managed agency would have limited impact. In the past, OSHA has used its small field staff to ensure that inspected employers were in compliance with health and safety standards. It has had a limited role in educating workers and employers and in supporting hazard surveillance and control activities by workers and their unions. If OSHA is to transcend its limitations it must have a broader vision of its mandate. More effective regulation is possible if workers understand workplace hazards and supplement OSHA's inspection efforts. OSHA can supply support for worker training, more stringent requirements for informing workers under existing right to know regulations, incentives for employers to involve workers and their unions in hazard reduction, greater opportunity for workers to participate in the inspection and hazard abatement process, and increased protection against discrimination for health and safety activities.