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Oncogene proteins as biomarkers in the molecular epidemiology of occupational carcinogenesis.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1991 May; 63(1):1-8
A new approach to the molecular epidemiologic evaluation of occupational carcinogenesis has become available through the use of oncogene proteins as biomarkers. This review considers molecular epidemiology and occupational cancer biomarkers, oncogenes and oncogene proteins, the ras gene and p21 protein, the p21 protein as a cancer biomarker, and areas for future research. Immunohistochemical techniques have been used successfully to detect p21 in an otherwise normal sputum cytology specimen from an asbestos exposed (1332214) worker who would be considered at risk for the development of lung cancer. Cells in culture that have been transformed by the ras gene and are expressing p21 have been transplanted into nude mice, resulting in tumors, and p21 has been detected in the animals' sera using immunologic techniques. This approach was also applied to study urine from human cancer patients. Serological testing has also been developed in a immunoblot that relies on electrophoresis of the serum sample followed by transfer to nitrocellulose, reaction with the monoclonal antibody directed against the amino acid sequence of the oncogene protein, and detection using as secondary antibody with a radioactive or enzymatic colorimetric label. In yet another study, six cancer patients were followed during the course of their therapy for p21 protein in their serum. Four of these showed no response to therapy and their pattern of p21 expression did not change over time. A cohort of 18 Finnish foundry workers with known high ambient workplace exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were examined for serum oncogene proteins including p21.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Cancer; Biological-monitoring; Urinalysis; Blood-analysis; Epidemiology; Protein-chemistry; Cigarette-smoking; Laboratory-animals
Environmental Sciences Columbia University Sch of PH 60 Haven Avenue/b-1 Level New York, NY 10032
Issue of Publication
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Columbia University New York, New York, New York
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division